From the Editor

Imagine that you are asked to design a program to prevent depression in a population at risk. Would you hire psychiatrists? Look to nurses? Tap the expertise of psychologists? All three?

In the first selection from Nature Medicine, Pamela J. Surkan (of Johns Hopkins University) and her co-authors describe a study that focused on prevention. As they worked in Pakistan – a nation with few mental health providers by Western standards – they chose to train lay people, teaching them to deliver CBT. In their single-blind, randomized controlled trial, 1 200 women who were pregnant and had anxiety (but not depression) were given enhanced usual care or CBT. “We found reductions of 81% and 74% in the odds of postnatal MDE and of moderate-to-severe anxiety…” We discuss the paper and its implications.

In the second selection, Joseph Friedman and Dr. Helena Hansen (both of the University of California, Los Angeles) look at deaths of despair in the United States in a research letter for JAMA Psychiatry. Their work builds on the idea that some deaths are related to the hopelessness of a person’s social or economic circumstance; past publications focused largely on White Americans. Friedman and Hansen drew on more than two decades of data, including ethnicity, from a US database, finding a different pattern and that: “Rising inequalities in deaths of despair among American Indian, Alaska Native and Black individuals were largely attributable to disproportionate early mortality from drug- and alcohol-related causes…”

A recent survey finds that psychiatrists see AI as potentially helpful with paperwork and diagnosing patients. But could AI help you keep up with the literature? In the third selection from Annals of Family Medicine, Dr. Joel Hake (of the University of Kansas) and his co-authors used ChatGPT to produce short summaries of studies, then evaluated their quality, accuracy, and bias. “We suggest that ChatGPT can help family physicians accelerate review of the scientific literature.”


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